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Mla Format For Website Bibliography Examples

MLA Works Cited: Electronic Sources (Web Publications)

Summary:

MLA (Modern Language Association) style is most commonly used to write papers and cite sources within the liberal arts and humanities. This resource, updated to reflect the MLA Handbook (8th ed.), offers examples for the general format of MLA research papers, in-text citations, endnotes/footnotes, and the Works Cited page.

Contributors: Tony Russell, Allen Brizee, Elizabeth Angeli, Russell Keck, Joshua M. Paiz, Michelle Campbell, Rodrigo Rodríguez-Fuentes, Daniel P. Kenzie, Susan Wegener, Maryam Ghafoor, Purdue OWL Staff
Last Edited: 2017-10-12 08:26:00

It is always a good idea to maintain personal copies of electronic information, when possible. It is good practice to print or save web pages or, better, use a program like Adobe Acrobat to keep your own copies for future reference. Most web browsers will include URL/electronic address information when you print, which makes later reference easy. Also, you might use the Bookmark function in your web browser in order to return to documents more easily.

MLA uses the phrase, “Accessed” to denote which date you accessed the web page when available or necessary. It is not required to do so but especially encouraged when there is no copyright date listed on a website.

Important Note on the Use of URLs in MLA

Include a URL or web address to help readers locate your sources. Because web addresses are not static (i.e., they change often) and because documents sometimes appear in multiple places on the web (e.g., on multiple databases), MLA encourages the use of citing containers such as Youtube, JSTOR, Spotify, or Netflix in order to easily access and verify sources. However, MLA only requires the www. address, so eliminate all https:// when citing URLs.

Many scholarly journal articles found in databases include a DOI (digital object identifier). If a DOI is available, cite the DOI number instead of the URL.

Online newspapers and magazines sometimes include a “permalink,” which is a shortened, stable version of a URL. Look for a “share” or “cite this” button to see if a source includes a permalink. If you can find a permalink, use that instead of a URL.

Abbreviations Commonly Used with Electronic Sources

If page numbers are not available, use par. or pars. to denote paragraph numbers. Use these in place of the p. or pp. abbreviation.

Basic Style for Citations of Electronic Sources (Including Online Databases)

Here are some common features you should try to find before citing electronic sources in MLA style. Not every Web page will provide all of the following information. However, collect as much of the following information as possible both for your citations and for your research notes:

  • Author and/or editor names (if available)
  • Article name in quotation marks.
  • Title of the website, project, or book in italics.
  • Any version numbers available, including editions (ed.), revisions, posting dates, volumes (vol.), or issue numbers (no.).
  • Publisher information, including the publisher name and publishing date.
  • Take note of any page numbers (p. or pp.) or paragraph numbers (par. or pars.).
  • URL (without the https://)  DOI or permalink.
  • Date you accessed the material (Date Accessed)—While not required, it is highly recommended, especially when dealing with pages that change frequently or do not have a visible copyright date.
  • Remember to cite containers after your regular citation. Examples of containers are collections of short stories or poems, a television series, or even a website. A container is anything that is a part of a larger body of works.

Use the following format:

Author. Title. Title of container (self contained if book), Other contributors (translators or editors), Version (edition), Number (vol. and/or no.), Publisher, Publication Date, Location (pages, paragraphs and/or URL, DOI or permalink). 2nd container’s title, Other contributors, Version, Number, Publisher, Publication date, Location, Date of Access (if applicable).

Citing an Entire Web Site

It is a good idea to list your date of access because web postings are often updated, and information available on one date may no longer be available later. When using the URL, be sure to include the complete address for the site except for the https://.

Editor, author, or compiler name (if available). Name of Site. Version number, Name of institution/organization affiliated with the site (sponsor or publisher), date of resource creation (if available), URL, DOI or permalink. Date of access (if applicable).

The Purdue OWL Family of Sites. The Writing Lab and OWL at Purdue and Purdue U, 2008, owl.english.purdue.edu/owl. Accessed 23 Apr. 2008.

Felluga, Dino. Guide to Literary and Critical Theory. Purdue U, 28 Nov. 2003, www.cla.purdue.edu/english/theory/. Accessed 10 May 2006.

Course or Department Websites

Give the instructor name. Then list the title of the course (or the school catalog designation for the course) in italics. Give appropriate department and school names as well, following the course title.

Felluga, Dino. Survey of the Literature of England. Purdue U, Aug. 2006, web.ics.purdue.edu/~felluga/241/241/Home.html. Accessed 31 May 2007.

English Department. Purdue U, 20 Apr. 2009, www.cla.purdue.edu/english/.

A Page on a Web Site

For an individual page on a Web site, list the author or alias if known, followed by the information covered above for entire Web sites. If the publisher is the same as the website name, only list it once.

"Athlete's Foot - Topic Overview." WebMD, 25 Sept. 2014, www.webmd.com/skin-problems-and-treatments/tc/athletes-foot-topic-overview.

Lundman, Susan. "How to Make Vegetarian Chili." eHow, www.ehow.com/how_10727_make-vegetarian-chili.html. Accessed 6 July 2015.

An Image (Including a Painting, Sculpture, or Photograph)

Provide the artist's name, the work of art italicized, the date of creation, the institution and city where the work is housed. Follow this initial entry with the name of the Website in italics, and the date of access.

Goya, Francisco. The Family of Charles IV. 1800. Museo Nacional del Prado, Madrid. Museo Nacional del Prado, www.museodelprado.es/en/the-collection/art-work/the-family-of-carlos-iv/f47898fc-aa1c-48f6-a779-71759e417e74. Accessed 22 May 2006.

Klee, Paul. Twittering Machine. 1922. Museum of Modern Art, New York. The Artchive, www.artchive.com/artchive/K/klee/twittering_machine.jpg.html. Accessed May 2006.

If the work is cited on the web only, then provide the name of the artist, the title of the work, and then follow the citation format for a website. If the work is posted via a username, use that username for the author.

Adams, Clifton R. “People relax beside a swimming pool at a country estate near Phoenix, Arizona, 1928.” Found, National Geographic Creative, 2 June 2016, natgeofound.tumblr.com/.

An Article in a Web Magazine

Provide the author name, article name in quotation marks, title of the web magazine in italics, publisher name, publication date, URL, and the date of access.

Bernstein, Mark. "10 Tips on Writing the Living Web." A List Apart: For People Who Make Websites, 16 Aug. 2002, alistapart.com/article/writeliving. Accessed 4 May 2009.

An Article in an Online Scholarly Journal

For all online scholarly journals, provide the author(s) name(s), the name of the article in quotation marks, the title of the publication in italics, all volume and issue numbers, and the year of publication. Include a URL, DOI, or permalink to help readers locate the source. 

Article in an Online-only Scholarly Journal

MLA requires a page range for articles that appear in Scholarly Journals. If the journal you are citing appears exclusively in an online format (i.e. there is no corresponding print publication) that does not make use of page numbers, indicate the URL or other location information.

Dolby, Nadine. “Research in Youth Culture and Policy: Current Conditions and Future Directions.” Social Work and Society: The International Online-Only Journal, vol. 6, no. 2, 2008, www.socwork.net/sws/article/view/60/362. Accessed 20 May 2009.

Article in an Online Scholarly Journal That Also Appears in Print

Cite articles in online scholarly journals that also appear in print as you would a scholarly journal in print, including the page range of the article. Provide the URL and the date of access.

Wheelis, Mark. "Investigating Disease Outbreaks Under a Protocol to the Biological and Toxin Weapons Convention." Emerging Infectious Diseases, vol. 6, no. 6, 2000, pp. 595-600, wwwnc.cdc.gov/eid/article/6/6/00-0607_article. Accessed 8 Feb. 2009.

An Article from an Online Database (or Other Electronic Subscription Service)

Cite online databases (e.g. LexisNexis, ProQuest, JSTOR, ScienceDirect) and other subscription services as containers. Thus, provide the title of the database italicized before the DOI or URL. If a DOI is not provided, use the URL instead. Provide the date of access if you wish.

Alonso, Alvaro, and Julio A. Camargo. "Toxicity of Nitrite to Three Species of Freshwater Invertebrates." Environmental Toxicology, vol. 21, no. 1, 3 Feb. 2006, pp. 90-94. Wiley Online Library, doi:10.1002/tox.20155.

Langhamer, Claire. “Love and Courtship in Mid-Twentieth-Century England.” Historical Journal, vol. 50, no. 1, 2007, pp. 173-96. ProQuest, doi:10.1017/S0018246X06005966. Accessed 27 May 2009.

E-mail (including E-mail Interviews)

Give the author of the message, followed by the subject line in quotation marks. State to whom to message was sent with the phrase, “Received by” and the recipient’s name. Include the date the message was sent. Use standard capitalization.

Kunka, Andrew. "Re: Modernist Literature." Received by John Watts, 15 Nov. 2000.

Neyhart, David. "Re: Online Tutoring." Received by Joe Barbato, 1 Dec. 2016.

A Listserv, Discussion Group, or Blog Posting

Cite web postings as you would a standard web entry. Provide the author of the work, the title of the posting in quotation marks, the web site name in italics, the publisher, and the posting date. Follow with the date of access. Include screen names as author names when author name is not known. If both names are known, place the author’s name in brackets.

Editor, screen name, author, or compiler name (if available). “Posting Title.” Name of Site, Version number (if available), Name of institution/organization affiliated with the site (sponsor or publisher), URL. Date of access.

Salmar1515 [Sal Hernandez]. “Re: Best Strategy: Fenced Pastures vs. Max Number of Rooms?” BoardGameGeek, 29 Sept. 2008, boardgamegeek.com/thread/343929/best-strategy-fenced-pastures-vs-max-number-rooms. Accessed 5 Apr. 2009.

A Tweet

Begin with the user's Twitter handle in place of the author’s name. Next, place the tweet in its entirety in quotations, inserting a period after the tweet within the quotations. Include the date and time of posting, using the reader's time zone; separate the date and time with a comma and end with a period. Include the date accessed if you deem necessary.

@tombrokaw. "SC demonstrated why all the debates are the engines of this campaign." Twitter, 22 Jan. 2012, 3:06 a.m., twitter.com/tombrokaw/status/160996868971704320.

@PurdueWLab. "Spring break is around the corner, and all our locations will be open next week." Twitter, 5 Mar. 2012, 12:58 p.m., twitter.com/PurdueWLab/status/176728308736737282.

A YouTube Video

Video and audio sources need to be documented using the same basic guidelines for citing print sources in MLA style. Include as much descriptive information as necessary to help readers understand the type and nature of the source you are citing. If the author’s name is the same as the uploader, only cite the author once. If the author is different from the uploaded, cite the author’s name before the title.

 “8 Hot Dog Gadgets put to the Test.” YouTube, uploaded by Crazy Russian Hacker, 6 June 2016, www.youtube.com/watch?v=WBlpjSEtELs.

McGonigal, Jane. “Gaming and Productivity.” YouTube, uploaded by Big Think, 3 July 2012, www.youtube.com/watch?v=mkdzy9bWW3E.

A Comment on a Website or Article 

List the username as the author. Use the phrase, Comment on, before the title. Use quotation marks around the article title. Name the publisher, date, time (listed on near the comment), and the URL.

Not Omniscent Enough. Comment on "Flight Attendant Tells Passenger to ‘Shut Up’ After Argument After Pasta." ABC News, 9 Jun 2016, 4:00 p.m., abcnews.go.com/US/flight-attendant-tells-passenger-shut-argument-pasta/story?id=39704050.

MLA Citation Examples

Based on the MLA Handbook, 8th Edition, 2016

Some General Rules

Works Cited List Examples

Need More Help?

For further guidance on MLA citations, please visit The MLA Style Center. You can also ask a librarian for help with citation-related questions. 

Need the 7th Edition?

See MLA Citation Examples: 7th Edition.


Some General Rules

In-Text Citations


What You Are Citing

In-Text Citation

The entire work
(or a work that has no page numbers)

Include information in the text of your paper that will allow the reader to locate the source in your works cited list.

If it is not possible to include this information in the text, follow the sentence where the citation needs to be made with an in-text citation containing only the name of the author.

In his article "Allston Gothic," local historian Forman Jackson demonstrates how completely the neighborhood's gruesome past has been forgotten by its residents.

OR

A recent newspaper article demonstrated just how thoroughly the neighborhood's gruesome past has been forgotten by its residents (Jackson).

A specific page

(Cortois 70)

If the author's name is included in the text of the sentence where the citation takes place

Jacobs has argued this point (190-210).

Multi-volume set

(Green 1: 112-14)
"1" is the volume number.

Citing multiple authors

See Authors, below.



Authors

One author

Example:
Works Cited List

Example:
In-Text Citation

Courtois, Charles A.

(Cortois 70)



Two authors

Example:
Works Cited List

Example:
In-Text Citation

Martin, Jonathan A., and Christopher Jackson.

(Martin and Jackson 127-28)



Three or more authors

Example:
Works Cited List

Example:
In-Text Citation

Fontela, Pablo, et al.

If a work has more than 2 authors, MLA gives you the option of listing only the first author followed by "et al." (Latin for "and others").

(Fontela et al. 153-54)



Group author

Example:
Works Cited List

Example:
In-Text Citation

Modern Language Association.

(Modern Language Association 111)



No authors listed

Example:
Works Cited List

Example:
In-Text Citation

"Hints and Notions." The Decorator and Furnisher, vol. 6, no. 2, May 1885, pp. 61-68. JSTOR, ezproxy.umuc.edu/login?url=www.jstor.org/stable/25584271.

List that source by title in your works cited list. The title should be followed by the name of the source in the citation, and the remainder of the citation composed as appropriate for the source type. Alphabetize reference list entries beginning with a title using the primary word of the title (excluding a, an, or the).

("Hints and Notions" 61)

In-text citations should include the title and the page number(s) of the text you are quoting or referring to, with the titles of articles in quotations, and the titles of books or Web sites italicized. In cases where the title contains a colon, use only the text before the colon in the in-text citation.



Titles

Titles of books, periodicals, art works, reports and Web sites are italicized. Please check the appropriate sample citation on this page to make sure you are using italics correctly.

Dates

With the exception of May, June and July, the names of the months must be abbreviated in MLA works cited lists as follows:

  • January = Jan.
  • February = Feb.
  • March = Mar.
  • April = Apr.
  • August = Aug.
  • September = Sept.
  • October= Oct.
  • November = Nov.
  • December = Dec.

Undated Sources: When the source you are citing has no publication date, simply omit that part of the citation. Do not write "No date" or "N.d.".

Source

Example

No date given

Jane Austen Society of Australia. "Sense & Sensibility." Jane Austen Society of North America. Map. www.jasna.org/info/images/map-ss-1200.jpg.



Volume and Issue Numbers

Volume and issue numbers are often not available for articles in online periodicals. In these cases simply follow the date of the magazine or journal with a period in your works cited list citation, omitting the volume number where necessary.

Source

Example

Journal volume and issue number available

Child and Family Behavior Therapy, vol. 26, no.1, 2004, pp. 88-96.

Online periodical where volume and issue numbers are not given

Journal of Family Counseling, 2004.



Page Numbers


Source

Example

Page range whose first number is over 100

125-35 (not 125-135)

3200-22 (not 3200-3222)

Do not repeat any numbers that can be easily inferred by the reader. This is done to minimize the length of works cited lists.

Online periodical where page numbers are not given

Persuasions, vol. 35, no. 1, 2014, www.jasna.org/persuasions/on-line/vol35no1/byrd.html.

Simply omit page numbers and give the URL after the publication date.



Citing a Source within a Source

Scenario: You read an article by Robbins that cites, on page 270, another article by Wills. You want to cite Will's article, but you have not read Wills's article itself.

Works Cited List

In-Text Citation

Robbins, Michael. "Paul Muldoon's Covert Operations." Modern Philology, vol. 109, no. 2, 2011, pp. 266-99. JSTOR, doi:10.1086/663233.

Your Works Cited list will contain the article you read, by Robbins. Your Works Cited list will NOT contain a citation for Wills's article.

Wills (cited in Robbins 270) notes that...

Your in-text citation gives credit to Wills and shows the source in which you found Wills's idea.

If Robbins directly quotes another author and you want to use that direct quotation, include the abbreviation "qtd. in." For example:

As Freud wrote, "He himself, however, had not noticed this glaringly obvious connection" (qtd. in Robbins 272).



DOIs and URLs

Use a DOI number if one is available. Otherwise use a URL (particularly a  permalink or stable URL, if one is available), and remove the beginning "http://" or "https://" from the link in your citation.

Source

Example

DOI

Robbins, Michael. "Paul Muldoon's Covert Operations." Modern Philology, vol. 109, no. 2, 2011, pp. 266-99. JSTOR, doi:10.1086/663233.

URL

Cohen, Lara Langer. "Emily Dickinson's Teenage Fanclub." The Emily Dickinson Journal, vol. 23, no. 1, 2014, muse.jhu.edu/article/543643.

Top


Articles

Academic Journals:


Source

Works Cited List

Library database

Robbins, Michael. "Paul Muldoon's Covert Operations." Modern Philology, vol. 109, no. 2, 2011, pp. 266-99. JSTOR, doi:10.1086/663233.

Free Web

Cohen, Lara Langer. "Emily Dickinson's Teenage Fanclub." The Emily Dickinson Journal, vol. 23, no. 1, 2014, muse.jhu.edu/article/543643.

In print

Jordan, Stephanie. "Mark Morris Marks Purcell: 'Dido and Aeneas' as Danced Opera." Dance Research, vol. 29, no. 2, 2011, pp. 167-213.

More info

Tip:

  • Include volume and issue number (example: vol. 23, no. 1) when both are available.

Magazines:

-Daily or Weekly Magazines


Source

Works Cited List

Library database

Updike, John. "Dreamy Wilderness." The New Yorker, vol. 84, no. 35, 3 Nov. 2008, p. 112. Academic OneFile, search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=edsgao&AN=edsgcl.188512674&site=eds-live&scope=site.

Free Web

Grossman, Lev. "Jhumpa Lahiri: The Quiet Laureate." Time, 8 May 2008, content.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,1738511,00.html.

In print

Aviv, Rachel. "Captain of Her Soul: The Philosopher Martha Nussbaum's Emotions." The New Yorker, vol. 92, no. 22, 25 July 2016, pp. 34-43.

More info



-Monthly Magazines


Source

Works Cited List

Library database

Newman, Judith. "Funny Girl." Ladies Home Journal, vol. 31, no. 5, June 2014, pp. 42-47. MasterFILE Premier, search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=f5h&AN=96041993&login.asp&site=ehost-live&scope=site.

Free Web

Brady, Heather. "The Well-hidden World of Whiskey Aging." National Geographic, 29 July 2016, www.nationalgeographic.com/people-and-culture/food/the-plate/2016/07/whiskey-distilling-production-entrepreneurs-market-science.

In print

Beard, Alison. "Life's Work." Harvard Business Review, vol. 93, no. 4, Apr. 2015, p. 116.

More info

Tip:

  • When an issue of a magazine covers several months, the name of the first and last month in the range should be given in the citation, separated by a dash, for example: Apr.-May 2003.

Newspapers


Source

Works Cited List

Library database

Mewshaw, Michael. "David Foster Wallace, a Fan and Elegant Analyst of Tennis." Washington Post, 19 June 2016, p. B6. ProQuest News & Newspapers, ezproxy.umuc.edu/login?url=http://search.proquest.com/docview/1797768833?accountid=14580.

Free Web

Michaels, Andrew. "Howard Police Teach Life Lessons to Youth Through Chess." Baltimore Sun, 23 Feb. 2016, www.baltimoresun.com/news/maryland/howard/columbia/ph-ho-cf-chess-club-hcpd-0225-20160222-story.html.

In print

Brown, Patricia Leigh. "Tiffany Glass and Other Tales from the Crypt." New York Times, 5 Sept. 1999, pp. A1+.

More info

Tip:

  • When an article appears on nonconsecutive pages (for example A1 and A6) give only the first page number followed by a "+" as shown above. Give the page number on which the material you've used appears in your in-text citation, for example: (Brown A6).

Encyclopedia Articles


Source

Works Cited List

Library database

Myers, Kathleen Ann. "Juana Inés de la Cruz, Sor." The Oxford Encyclopedia of Women in World History, edited by Bonnie G. Smith, Oxford UP, 2008. Oxford Reference, www.oxfordreference.com/view/10.1093/acref/9780195148909.001.0001/acref-9780195148909-e-541.

More info



Book, Film and Product Reviews


Source

Works Cited List

Library database

Grimes, William. "Beyond Mandalay, the Road to Isolation and Xenophobia." Review of The River of Lost Footsteps: Histories of Burma, by Thant Myint-U. New York Times, 13 Dec. 2006, pp. E8+. ProQuest, ezproxy.umuc.edu/login?url=http://search.proquest.com/docview/433471566?accountid=14580.

An untitled book, film, or product review (for example, a review covering multiple works):

Guha, Martin. Review of Fleeting Pleasures: A History of Intoxicants, by Mervyn London, and Substance Use among Young People in Urban Environments, by Isidore S. Obot and Shekhar Saxena. Journal of Mental Health, vol. 15, no. 2, 2006, pp. 713-16. PsycARTICLES, ezproxy.umuc.edu/login?url=http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=psyh&AN=2006-22219-010&site=eds-live&scope=site.

In print

Grimes, William. "Beyond Mandalay, the Road to Isolation and Xenophobia." Review of The River of Lost Footsteps: Histories of Burma, by Thant Myint-U. New York Times, 13 Dec. 2006, pp. E8+.

An untitled book, film, or product review (for example, a review covering multiple works):

Guha, Martin. Review of Fleeting Pleasures: A History of Intoxicants, by Mervyn London, and Substance Use among Young People in Urban Environments, by Isidore S. Obot and Shekhar Saxena. Journal of Mental Health, vol. 15, no. 2, 2006, pp. 713-16.

More info

Tip:

  • The name of the work being reviewed should be preceded by "Rev.", and italics or other formatting done as appropriate for items reviewed and the source of the review itself.

Top


Books


Source

Works Cited List

Basic book

Jans, Nick. The Last Light Breaking: Life among Alaska's Inupiat Eskimos. Alaska Northwest Books, 1993.

Edited book

Miller, John, and Tim Smith, editors. Cape Cod Stories: Tales from Cape Cod, Nantucket, and Martha's Vineyard. Chronicle Books, 1996.

Please see the sample citation for a chapter or article in an anthology below for information on citing a component of an edited collection.

Numbered edition other than the first

Wardle, Elizabeth, and Doug Downs, editors. Writing About Writing: A College Reader. 2nd ed., Bedford/St. Martin's, 2014.

Revised edition

Culliney, John L. Islands in a Far Sea: The Fate of Nature in Hawai'i. Rev. ed., U of Hawai'i P, 2006.

Multi-volume set

Green, Constance McLaughlin. Washington. Princeton UP, 1962-63. 2 vols.

In-text citation:(Green 1: 112-14)
"1" is the volume number.

Chapter or article in an anthology

Toibin, Colm. "Send My Roots Rain: Gerard Manley Hopkins." Not Less Than Everything, edited by Catherine Wolff, HarperOne, 2013, 284-99.

If the piece being cited was previously published, give the original date of publication after its title. The page numbers of the chapter or article should follow publication information for the book in your citation.

More info

Note on publisher element:

  • MLA citation style no longer includes the publisher's city, only the publisher's name.
  • If the publisher's name includes "University" or "Press," abbreviate those, without periods, for example:
    • Princeton UP, 2014.
    • U of Pittsburgh P, 1994.

Top


E-Books


Source

Works Cited List

Library database

Barkan, Leonard. Mute Poetry, Speaking Pictures. Princeton UP, 2013. eBook Collection (EBSCOhost), ezproxy.umuc.edu/login?url=http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=nlebk&AN=503029&site=eds-live&scope=site&profile=edsebook.

Free Web

Seton, Ernest Thompson. The Arctic Prairies: A Canoe-Journey of 2,000 Miles in Search of the Caribou. C. Scribner's Sons, 1911. Project Gutenberg,www.gutenberg.org/ebooks/6818.

Book chapter from a library database (suggested format)

Thompson, Kate. "Journal Writing as a Therapeutic Tool." Writing Cures: An Introductory Handbook of Writing in Counselling and Psychotherapy, edited by Gillie Bolton, Routledge, 2004, pp. 72-84. eBook Collection (EBSCOhost), ezproxy.umuc.edu/login?url=http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=nlebk&AN=116959&site=eds-live&scope=site&profile=edsebook.

Library databases may include chapters from books. Information about the publisher of a book can often be found in the description of the chapter in the database. Author and publisher information may be omitted from your citation if it is not available.

More info



Top


Web Sites


Source

Works Cited List

Author is an individual

Inskeep, Steve. "In Iran, A Poet's 700-Year-Old Verses Still Set Hearts Aflame." NPR, 12 Feb. 2016, www.npr.org/sections/parallels/2016/02/12/466408554/in-iran-a-poets-700-year-old-verses-still-set-hearts-aflame.

The publisher of the Web site, NPR, goes after the title of the Web page.

Author is an organization

Poetry Foundation. "Paul Laurence Dunbar." 2016, www.poetryfoundation.org/poems-and-poets/poets/detail/paul-laurence-dunbar.

The publisher of the Web site, the Poetry Foundation, is used as the author because no individual author of the Web page content is named on the page.

More info



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Online Classroom Materials


Source

Works Cited List

Course module in UMUC online classroom

UMUC. "What Is Research?" Course module in UMUC LIBS 150 online classroom, Summer 2016, learn.umuc.edu/d2l/le/content/147066/viewContent/6332908/View.

No official MLA format for citing online classroom materials exists. This is merely a recommended format to use in citing such documents.

More info



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Technical and Research Reports


Source

Works Cited List

Free Web

United States. Government Accountability Office. Information Security: Concerted Effort Needed to Consolidate and Secure Internet Connections at Federal Agencies. Mar. 2010, www.gao.gov/assets/310/301876.pdf.

In print

Information Security: Concerted Effort Needed to Consolidate and Secure Internet Connections at Federal Agencies. United States Government Accountability Office, Mar. 2010.

More info



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Dissertations and Theses

MLA does not provide official citation formats for dissertations and theses retrieved from online sources, but we recommend the use of the following:

Dissertations


Source

Works Cited List

Dissertations and Theses database

Pecore, Joanna Theresa. "Sounding the Spirit of Cambodia: The Living Tradition of Khmer Music and Dance-Drama in a Washington, D.C. Community." Dissertation, U of Maryland, College Park, 2004. Dissertations and Theses, ezproxy.umuc.edu/login?url=http://search.proquest.com/docview/305175282?accountid=14580.

Free Web

Caprette, Christopher L. "Conquering the Cold Shudder: The Origin and Evolution of Snake Eyes." Dissertation, Ohio State U, 2005, rave.ohiolink.edu/etdc/view?acc_num=osu1111184984.

In print

Caprette, Christopher L. "Conquering the Cold Shudder: The Origin and Evolution of Snake Eyes." Dissertation, Ohio State U, 2005.

More info



Master's Theses


Source

Works Cited List

Dissertations and Theses database

Harzbecker, Joseph John. "Life and Death in Washington, D.C.: An Analysis of the Mortality Census of 1850." Master's thesis, U of Massachusetts, Boston, 1999. Dissertations and Theses, ezproxy.umuc.edu/login?url=http://search.proquest.com/docview/304573667?accountid=14580.

Free Web

Angelova, Anelia Nedelcheva. "Data Pruning." Master's thesis, California Institute of Technology, 2004, resolver.caltech.edu/CaltechETD:etd-05282004-000943.

In print

Angelova, Anelia Nedelcheva. "Data Pruning." Master's thesis, California Institute of Technology, 2004.

More info

Tip:

  • For Masters of Science theses, replace "MA" with "MS".

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Images

MLA provides limited guidance on citing images: if you are unable to cite the image that you need to using the formats below, please contact us for assistance.

Titled Image


Source

Works Cited List

Library database

Martin, Agnes. Morning. 1965. Painting. Tate Gallery, London. Oxford Reference, www.oxfordreference.com/view/10.1093/acref/9780195335798.001.0001/acref-9780195335798-e-1302.

Free Web

Rousseau, Henri. The Ship in the Storm. 1896. Painting. Musee de l'Orangerie, Paris, www.musee-orangerie.fr/en/artwork/ship-storm.

The collection which owns the image should be included in your citation along with its location as shown above.

Image reproduced in a printed source

Rousseau, Henri. The Ship in the Storm. 1896. Painting. Musee de l'Orangerie, Paris. Henri Rousseau: Jungles in Paris. By Claire Fresches, et al. National Gallery of Art, 2006. p. 232.

More info



Untitled Image

If an image is untitled, create a brief, descriptive title for it. Do not italicize this title or place it in quotes, and capitalize only the first word and any proper nouns.

Source

Works Cited List

Library database

Massachusetts Historical Society. Seal of the society set in a landscape with ornaments. Proceedings of the Massachusetts Historical Society, vol. 17, 1879-1880, p. iii. JSTOR, ezproxy.umuc.edu/login?url=http://www.jstor.org/stable/25079540.

Image reproduced in a printed source

Muybridge, Eadweard. Photograph of a horse running. 1887. National Gallery, London. Eadweard Muybridge: The Father of the Motion Picture. By Gordon Hendricks. Grossman, 1975. p. 202.

Give the number of the page that the image appears on after the book's publication information.

More info

Tip:

  • If known, the collection which owns the image should be included in your citation along with its location as shown above.

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Streaming Videos


Source

Works Cited List

Free Web

McGregor, Wayne. "A Choreographer's Creative Process in Real Time." TED, June 2012. www.ted.com/talks/wayne_mcgregor_a_choreographer_s_creative_process_in_real_time.

More info



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Interviews and E-mail Messages


Source

Works Cited List

Interviews

Brown, Jane. Personal interview. 18 Nov. 2006.

Smith, John. Telephone interview. 12 Aug. 2006.

Whiting, Jennifer. E-mail interview. 2-10 Dec. 2005.

To cite an interview you have conducted as part of your research, give the name of the person you interviewed, the type of interview, and the date or range of dates.

E-mail message

Doe, Jane. "Re: Why Poetry Matters." Received by John Smith, 1 Aug. 2016.

Give the name of the person who wrote the email. The title is the subject line of the email. For "Received by," the name will usually be your own. Finish with the date of the email.

More info



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