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8 Grade Universal Systems Model Essay

Should companies be responsible for the unemployment caused by their information systems? Is a question of a problem that is being increasingly asked as a result of companies shift efforts to implement new technology within their business [ CITATION Sho10 \l 3081 ]. By exploring ethical frameworks we will discuss the potential result of applied ethics. We will also apply these models to a case study with the discussed theories to explore potential implications and show that companies should be responsible for unemployment caused by their information systems. Responsibility defines a duty task or function that must be provided [ CITATION Oxf12 \l 3081 ]. It can also be extended to include trustworthiness, maturity and dependability this will be the functional definition used in our question to examine companies duty and maturity in unemployment. Unemployment refers to the inability to obtain a job when one is willing and able to work. An assumption will be made that unemployment is a negative or undesirable state. Consideration is to be given to company’s duty if they instil inability to work through reduction in jobs with the implantation of information systems. Information systems have developed over a period of time but it is important to consider what functions an information serves and the effects of it implementation. Information systems are used to gather data, store information, transform information by analysis of the data resulting increased accuracy in decision making. These process whilst could be completed by a person it is practically impossible to combine all the process into a singular operator and this is where the benefits of an information system are; a centralised, data storage system that is capable of producing information, quickly and accurately of periods of time. [ CITATION Sho10 \l 3081 ] Morality defines the accord of standards of “good” conduct, it influences our actions and decision making and allows for discursion in right and wrong [ CITATION Tho52 \l 3081 ]. An action is moral in the fact that personal interest is satisfied [ CITATION Dio12 \l 3081 ]. Within a company we see aspects of shared leadership so that tasks are shared to achieve the common good which has strong links to utilitarian principles which results in decisions being made on clear and objective principles – however the resultant unemployment as a result of information systems is unclear and not grounded on clear ethical objectives. Ethical theories is a branch of philosophy related to the study of morals (or immorality) and decisions. It attempts to rationally examine morality to achieve an objective answer to right vs wrong. It places a desire to evaluate the consequences of a given decisions. Ethical perspectives are relative and depending on an ethical view point a decision may moral but from another immoral. Kantianism and Utilitarianism will be explored to see their ethical viewpoint on social responsibility. Kantianism is an ethical theory proposed by Immanuel Kant. Kantianism suggests that people’s actions are guided by moral laws that are universalised. Moral laws can be derived though a reasoning process that explains why an action is right or wrong. It results in three categorical imperatives; firstly that acts should be done in accord where it should become universal law, secondly acts treat humanity as an ends and never a means to an end, and thirdly is the requirement that every rational being must act in such that it is part of the universal end [ CITATION Mic13 \l 3081 ]. If we consider unemployment as a result of information systems against these three imperatives we can see; firstly that we are not able to universalise the rule that companies should be responsible, other factors exist such as social context and existing demand for unemployed workers – In one situation is may be right but in another in may not be. Secondly by replacing people with information systems we are treating humanity as a means to an end of producing a better decision making systems this is clearly in violation of the second imperative. Thirdly by replacing a person with an information system the company was act to produce a universalised end that is better decision making which generally results in an overall positive for society in this imperative it was a moral decision. We can see that since the decision to directly (or indirectly) cause unemployment through the implementation of an information system failed the first two imperatives of Kantianism we are able to suggest that the decision was immoral, and therefore the company must have responsibility for the unemployment that is caused. The company has treated humanity as a means to an end. Utilitarianism is another ethical theory we will consider. Utilitarianism defines an action moral if it in broad terms increases happiness and reduces suffering. We will focus on Rule Utilitarianism and Act Utilitarianism. In Rule Utilitarianism an action is defined as moral if it leads to the greatest good which contrasts to Act Utilitarianism where an action is moral if it the best possible action whilst still conforming to our general Utilitarianism definition. In each case individuals must be granted utility [ CITATION Dio12 \l 3081 ]. Consider Rule Utilitarianism, if a company implements an information system and results in unemployment, this action has not lead to the greatest good, and society must now bear the burden of the individual. In this instance the decision was immoral. In Act Utilitarianism however other factors must be consider, if this was the best possible action the company could make the action is then moral, for example if the company was going to collapse as a result of a lack of information systems we can accept the action as moral, outside of this the company’s decision didn’t reduce suffering as much as another decision, we would therefore conclude the action is immoral. Within the application of Utilitarianism we can see depending on circumstances that the actions were immoral. As a result of this we must conclude that the company must take responsibility for the resultant unemployment caused by information systems. This is the same result as the application of Kantianism. To verify these statements applying the outcome to a case study will enable us to understand the result further. An example unemployment caused by the implementation of informations systems is of utility company Pacific Gas and Electric Company (PG&E) [ CITATION THE13 \l 3081 ]. PG&E every day replaces approximately twelve hundred ‘old fashioned’ meters with new digital meters that can collect information without human help. In 2013 a meter reader who manually records numbers earns just less than $70,000USD [ CITATION THE13 \l 3081 ], this represents a significant cost saving for the utility provider. Over a period of just six years the number of meter readers in a New York department was reduced from fifty to six. By application of our discussed ethical theories we can decide if the actions were moral and subsequently if responsibility needs to be accepted. Kantianism if we consider the first imperative, that is the universalisation of the rule we can’t extend this to every case, in addition to this the second imperative suggests that the company has treated the employees as means to an end. That is they were used in a “disposable” fashion. By this reasoning the actions of the company were immoral and responsibility should be taken. Utilitarianism’s application to the situation must consider the overall happiness of the people involved. If the assumption is made that no functional difference is observable by the customer in a meter change we can safely conclude that overall happiness hasn’t increased. This the actions of the company are immoral and should take responsibility. In evaluating the question of responsibility it also must be noted that responsibility is not directly related to providing employment. That is despite an immoral action by the company to cause unemployment, it responsibility doesn’t necessarily include providing another job, or not implementing an information system. Responsibility can take the form of remuneration, re-training or providing support services, the nature of this is outside the scope of the question. By defining key terms and an exploration of the ethical theories and its application to the question of responsibility logical conclusions can be drawn. Responsibly was defined as the duty and in relational to unemployment, which is assumed to be a negative state of a person. The ethical theories of Kantianism and Utilitarianism are used to evaluate the question, ultimately both resulted in the immorality of the caused unemployment thus requiring companies to take responsibility this is strengthened though an examining into an example of unemployment with the Pacific Gas and Electric Company that allowed a clear application of these ethical theories, and re-affirmed the position that companies should take responsibility for caused unemployment. References CITATION Sho10 \l 3081 : , [1], CITATION Oxf12 \l 3081 : , [2], CITATION Tho52 \l 3081 : , [3], CITATION Dio12 \l 3081 : , [4], CITATION Mic13 \l 3081 : , [5], CITATION THE13 \l 3081 : , [6], [1] A. Shollo and K. Kautz, "Towards an Understanding of Business Intelligence," in ACIS 2010 Proceedings, 2010. [2] Oxford, Oxford Paperback Thesaurus, Oxford University Press, 2012. [3] T. E. Hill, "Contemporary Ethical Theories," The Philosophical Quarterly, vol. 2, no. 9, p. 381, 1952. [4] M. Dion, "Are ethical theories relevant for ethical leadership?," Leadership & Organization Development Journal, vol. 33, no. 1, pp. 4-24, 2012. [5] M. Quinn, Ethics For The Information Age 5th ed., Pearson, 2013. [6] THE ASSOCIATED PRESS, "Can smart machines take your job? Middle class jobs increasingly being replaced by technology," NY Daily News, 24 January 2013. [Online]. Available: http://www.nydailynews.com/smart-machines-job-article-1.1246522. [Accessed 20 March 2014].

Help

The ACT® essay is a great way to wow universities with your college-ready writing skills. While you can’t be sure what the essay will ask about ahead of time, you can use the same general structure for every ACT® essay!

The following provides helpful suggestions for writing your essay. You do not need to copy this approach exactly; think of it as an extremely useful framework.

 

1st paragraph = 4 sentences
1. Hook (a question or statement that grabs the reader’s attention)
2. Restate the first point of view.
3. Restate the opposition.
4. State your thesis AND include the type of examples you will use.
2nd paragraph = at least 5 sentences
1. Introduction with a transition
2 – 4. Details about your example
5. A sentence that states how your example SPECIFICALLY supports your thesis
3rd paragraph = at least 5 sentences
1. Introduction to your example with a transition
2 – 4. Details about your example
5. A sentence that states how your example SPECIFICALLY supports your thesis
4th paragraph = at least 5 sentences
1. Introduction with a transition & an acknowledgement of the opposition
2 – 4. Details about your example
5. A sentence that states how your example SPECIFICALLY supports your thesis
OPTIONAL paragraph (helpful for scoring a 10 or above)
1. Introduction with a transition & an acknowledgement of the opposition
2 – 4. Details about your example
5. A sentence that states how your example SPECIFICALLY supports your thesis
Conclusion paragraph = 2 sentences
1. Use a concluding transition word, mention the examples you used and state that they clearly support your thesis
2. A Zinger (just like a hook, except it is used at the last sentence of the entire essay)
Educators debate extending high school to five years because of increasing demands on students from employers and colleges to participate in extracurricular activities and community service in addition to having high grades. Some educators support extending high school to five years because they think students need more time to achieve all that is expected of them. Other educators do not support extending high school to five years because they think students would lose interest in school and attendance would drop in the fifth year. In your opinion, should high school be extended to five years?
In your essay, take a position on this question. You may write about either one of the two points of view given, or you may present a different point of view on this question. Use specific reasons and examples to support your position.

Sample Essay Using Template


1st paragraph = 3 sentences
1. Hook (a question or statement that grabs the reader’s attention) Is high school really the best time of one’s life?
2. Restate the first point of view. Some people think that high school should be five years instead of four years long.
3. Restate the opposition. Others contend that extending the length of high school will not be beneficial for students.
4. State your thesis AND include the type of examples you will use. Schools should not change the four-year schedule because an additional year will cost too much money, students will lose motivation, and a fifth year would be stressful.
2nd paragraph = at least 5 sentences
1. Introduction with a transition. Even if high school is the pinnacle of one’s life, it cannot simply be extended without consequences.
2 – 4. Details about your example. In schools across the country, students are already suffering from budget cuts, and an extra year would simply compound the problem.  The most expensive part of any school district’s budget is teacher salaries, and it would take more teachers to staff the additional classes that a fifth year would require. No matter how much a fifth year might help, to take away from the existing budget would lead to fewer supplies to go around, larger class sizes, and further under-compensated educators.
5. A sentence that states how your example SPECIFICALLY supports your thesis. In short, no matter how enjoyable a fifth year may be to teenagers, schools simply cannot afford it.
3rd paragraph = at least 5 sentences
1. Introduction to your example with a transition. If money isn’t a compelling enough reason to deter districts from adding a fifth year, consider the universal plague of senior-itis.
2 – 4. Details about your example. Students as young as 14 complain that they are sick of high school and can’t wait for it to be over.  College sounds fun and exciting, and high school is the hurdle standing in the way.  High schoolers want to live in dorms, eat in a dining hall, and sleep in to noon.  To deny them of that opportunity for an entire year would decrease the likelihood of them following through with that dream.
5. A sentence that states how your example SPECIFICALLY supports your thesis. Really, the only cure for senior-itis is graduation, so prolonging that outcome will only dampen students’ spirits.
4th paragraph = at least 5 sentences
1. Introduction with a transition & an acknowledgement of the opposition. It is tempting to require a fifth year of high school to help teenagers develop life skills that are beneficial in the job market, but colleges provide that help without the added stress of attending a school that is determined based on geography alone.
2 – 4. Details about your example. High school students across America feel marginalized within their schools because they cannot find friends who have the same interests.  In small towns, everyone knows everyone else, and it is difficult to “re-invent” oneself.  College allows for personal and creative freedom that leads to self-assurance and general satisfaction.
5. A sentence that states how your example SPECIFICALLY supports your thesis. College is a much better time to learn about being an adult because it is much easier to envision oneself as an adult when the pressures of growing up aren’t constant stresses.
OPTIONAL paragraph (helpful for scoring a 10 or above)
1. Introduction with a transition. The process of advancing through high school as a springboard into advanced studies may not be perfect, but extending the journey could be disastrous.
2 – 4. Details about your example. Any issue that a high school currently faces will not get any better by adding a fifth year.  Everything from violence to drop-out rates to lack of interest in extracurricular programs will be exacerbated by the implementation of a fifth year of high school.  Even if enough support could be generated to institute such a measure, it would likely be reversed after seeing the ramifications.
5. A sentence that states how your example SPECIFICALLY supports your thesis. High schoolers have enough problems already, so making them stay in a place that suffers from a multitude of issues will not be in their best interest.
Conclusion paragraph = 2 sentences
1. Use a concluding transition word, mention the examples you used and state that they clearly support your thesis. In all, a fifth year of high school would cripple the already wounded system in terms of money, motivation, and stress.
2. A Zinger (just like a hook, except it is used at the last sentence of the entire essay). If America is truly concerned with helping its youth, people will make every effort to improve the four years of high school that we already have.
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