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Anne-Thérèse de Marguenat de Courcelles (1647 – 12 July 1733), who on her marriage became Madame de Lambert, Marquise de Saint-Bris, and is generally known as the Marquise de Lambert, was a French writer and salonnière.

During the Régence, when the court of the Duchesse du Maine, at the Château de Sceaux, was amusing itself with frivolities, and when that of the Duc d’Orléans, at the Palais-Royal, was devoting itself to debauchery, the salon of the Marquise de Lambert passed for the temple of propriety and good taste, in a reaction against the cynicism and vulgarity of the time. For the cultivated people of the time, it was a true honor to be admitted to the celebrated "Tuesdays", where the dignity and high class of the "Great Century" were still in the air.

Biography[edit]

The only daughter of Étienne de Marguenat, Seigneur de Courcelles, and his wife, Monique Passart, Anne-Thérèse de Marguenat de Courcelles was born and died in Paris. She lost her father, an officer of the fiscal court of Paris, in 1650, when she was just three years old. She was raised by her mother, who was distinguished by the lightness of her habits, and by her mother’s second husband, the literary dilettante François Le Coigneux de Bachaumont, who instilled in her a love of literature. At a young age, writes her friend Bernard Le Bouyer de Fontenelle, "she often stole away from the pleasures of youth to read alone, and she began, of her own accord, to write extracts of what struck her the most. It was either subtle reflections on the human heart, or ingenious turns of phrase, but most often reflections."[1]

On 22 February 1666, she married Henri de Lambert, marquis de Saint-Bris, a distinguished officer who was to become a lieutenant-general and the governor of Luxembourg. Their union was very happy and they had two children:[2] a son, Henri-François (1677–1754), and a daughter, Marie-Thérèse (†1731), who became Comtesse de Saint-Aulaire by her marriage. The Marquise de Lambert was widowed in 1686 and raised her two young children while carrying on lengthy and troublesome lawsuits against her husband’s family to save her children’s property.

In 1698, she rented the north-west half of the hôtel de Nevers, located on the rue de Richelieu near the current site of the Bibliothèque nationale. Starting in 1710, in her beautiful drawing room decorated by Robert de Cotte, she launched her famous literary salon. According to her friend the Abbé de La Rivière, "She fell victim to a colic of cultivation and wit, an illness which stuck her suddenly and which remained incurable until her death." She received visitors twice a week: literary people on Tuesdays and high society on Wednesdays, without, however, seeking to establish an impenetrable barrier between the two worlds; on the contrary, she liked to interest the well-born in literature and to introduce writers to the advantages of frequenting society, and regular visitors could pass without constraint from one day to the other.

The Tuesdays began about one o’clock in the afternoon. After a very fine dinner, "academic conferences" on a philosophical or literary theme took place. Political and religious discussions were absolutely prohibited. Every guest was required to give a personal opinion or to read some excerpts from their latest work; on the morning of the gathering, says the Abbé de La Rivière, "the guests prepared wit for the afternoon." The lady of the house directed what her critics called "wit’s business office". She encouraged writers to the highest moral tone and contributed to orienting the movement of ideas toward new literary forms: from her salon originated Antoine Houdar de la Motte’s attacks on the three unities, on versification, and on Homer, whom Madame de Lambert thought dull; which did not prevent her from receiving such partisans of the Classical writers as Anne Dacier, Father d’Olivet, or Valincour.

The Marquise de Lambert was not socially conservative. She championed Montesquieu’s satirical Persian Letters and succeeded in obtaining the author’s election to the Académie française. She was one of the first society women to open her door to actors such as Adrienne Lecouvreur or Michel Baron.

Fontenelle and Houdar de la Motte were the great men of her celebrated salon, where one could also encounter Marie-Catherine d’Aulnoy, the poet Catherine Bernard, the Abbé de Bragelonne, Father Buffier, the Abbé de Choisy, Madame Dacier, the mathematician Dortous de Mairan, Fénelon, Hénault, Marivaux, the Abbé Mongault, Montesquieu, the lawyer Louis de Sacy (one of the Marquise’s favorites), the Marquis de Sainte-Aulaire,[3]Baronne Staal, Madame de Tencin who received the Marquise’s guests at her death in 1733, or the Abbé Terrasson.

The Marquise de Lambert’s salon was known as the antechamber of the Académie française. According to the Marquis d’Argenson, "she had brought about the election of half the members of the Academy."

Madame de Lambert, says Fontenelle, "was not only ardent to serve her friends, without waiting for their request, nor the humiliating exposition of their need; but a good deed to be done, even for someone she had no connection with, always interested her intensely, and the circumstances had to be especially contrary, for her not to succumb. Some bad outcomes of her generosity had not reformed her, and she always remained equally ready to risk doing good."[4]

Works[edit]

Literary legacy[edit]

Madame de Lambert was particularly interested in questions of education. She wrote Advice from a mother to her son (1726) and Advice from a mother to her daughter (1728) which are full of nobility and a great elevation of thought, and whose debt to the maxims of Fénelon she recognized: "I found the precepts which I gave to my son in Telemachus and the counsels to my daughter in L'Éducation des filles."[5]

Her "Reflections on Women" were not intended to be printed, and when they were published from copies intended for friends of the author, she was greatly upset and believed herself dishonored. She bought up a large part of the edition to destroy it, which did not prevent several clandestine reprintings and even a translation into English. This text finely evokes the paradoxes of the feminine condition:

I have examined whether women could be better employed : I have found respectable authors who have thought that they had qualities which might carry them to great things, such as imagination, feeling, taste : gifts which they have received from Nature. I have reflected on each of these qualities. Since feeling dominates them, and leads them naturally towards love, I have sought whether they could be saved from the disadvantages of that passion, by separating pleasure from what is called vice. I have therefore imagined a metaphysics of love : let her practise it who can.

Without rejecting the attractions of femininity, the author revolts against the emptiness of women’s education, reproaching Molière with '"having attached to learning the shame which was the lot of vice." It is inner emptiness, she believes, which leads to moral corruption : enhanced education is therefore a bulwark against vice.

She also wrote essays on Friendship and on Old Age, as well as depictions of the guests at her salon and pieces to be read at these gatherings.

She had a true talent for crafting maxims with a new and original turn : "It is often well thought," writes the nineteenth-century critic Charles Augustin Sainte-Beuve, "but it is even better said."[6] Sometimes erring by an excess of refinement, she often shows energy and concision. Her writings are remarkable, according to Fontenelle, "for the tone of amiable virtue that reigns throughout," and, according to Louis Simon Auger, "for the purity of the style and the morality, the elevation of the sentiments, the fineness of the observations and the ideas."

The Marquise de Lambert was not very devout, even if she condemned irreligion as in bad taste;[7] "Mme de Lambert’s religion," notes Sainte-Beuve, "is more of an elevated intellectual form than an interior and habitual spring flowing from the heart, or than a positive revelation."[8] In this way, she was a forerunner of the Enlightenment and its philosophical ideas.

Chronological list[edit]

  • Lettre de madame la Marquise de ***, sur les Fables Nouvelles [d’Antoine Houdar de La Motte]. Avec la réponse servant d’apologie, 1719
  • Avis d’une mère à son fils [A Mother's Advice to Her Son], 1726
  • Réflexions nouvelles sur les femmes, ou Métaphysique d’amour [New Reflections on Women, or Metaphysics of Love], 1727
  • Avis d’une mère à sa fille [A Mother's Advice to Her Daughter], 1728
  • Traité de l’Amitié [Essay on Friendship], 1732
  • Traité de la Vieillesse [Essay on Old Age], 1732

The Marquise de Lambert's Works were published a number of times, beginning in 1747; besides the pieces listed above, they contained Dialogue entre Alexandre et Demosthène sur l’égalité des biens [Dialogue between Alexander and Demosthenes on the Equality of Happiness]; Psyché, en grec Âme [Psyche, Soul in Greek]; La Femme ermite, nouvelle [The Female Hermit]; letters, portraits, and discourses.

Translations[edit]

  • Advice from a Mother to Her Son and Daughter; trans. William Hatchett. London: Tho. Worrall, 1729.
  • The Philosophy of Love, or New Reflections on the Fair Sex; trans. John Lockman. London: J. Hawkins, 1729 and 1737.
  • The Marchioness de Lambert's Letters to her Son and Daughter, On True Education and Dialogue Between Alexander and Diogenes on the Equality of Happiness; trans. Rowell. London: M. Cooper, 1749.
  • The Works of the Marchioness de Lambert; trans. anon. London: W. Owen, 1749. Further editions in 1756, 1769, 1770 (Dublin: J. Potts), 1781.
  • Essays on Friendship and Old Age; trans. Eliza Ball Hayley. London : J. Dodsley, 1780. American Libraries archive
  • The Fair Solitary, or Female Hermit; trans. anon. Philadelphia: William Spottswood, 1790.
  • "Advice of a Mother to Her Daughter"; trans. anon. In The Young Lady's Parental Monitor. London: Nathaniel Patten, 1792. American Libraries archive. And in Angelica's Ladies Library, or, Parents and Guardians Present. London: J. Hamilton, 1794. Google Books Republished, with a new introduction by Vivien Jones, Thoemmes Press, 1995.
  • "Advice of a Mother to Her Son"; trans. anon. In Practical Morality, or, a Guide to Men and Manners. Hartford: William Andrus, 1841. Google Books
  • New Reflections on Women: A New Translation and Introduction; trans. Ellen McNiven Hine. New York: Peter Lang Publishing, 1995.

References[edit]

  1. ^Fontenelle, p. 402.
  2. ^In addition to two daughters who died in infancy.
  3. ^According to Hénault, the Marquise de Lambert married him in secret toward the end of her life.
  4. ^Fontenelle, p. 404.
  5. ^Nonetheless, the advice to her daughter is intellectually broader than Fénelon’s restrictive conception of girls' education, according to Daniélou (2000).
  6. ^Sainte-Beuve, IV, p. 226.
  7. ^"Devotion is a becoming sentiment in women, and befitting to both sexes."
  8. ^Sainte-Beuve, IV, p. 229.

Bibliography[edit]

  • Bolufer, Mónica (2015). "Una ética de la excelencia: Cayetana de la Cerda y la circulación de Madame de Lambert en España". Cuadernos de Historia Moderna (in Spanish). Madrid: Complutense University of Madrid. 40: 241–264. doi:10.5209/rev_CHMO.2015.v40.49170. ISSN 0214-4018. 
  • Craveri, Benedetta (2005) [2001]. "The Marquise de Lambert: The Ideal of the Honnête Femme". The Art of Conversation. trans. Teresa Waugh. New York: New York Review Books. pp. 263–276. ISBN 1-59017-141-1. 
  • Daniélou, Catherine (2000). "Anne-Thérèse de Lambert". In Anne R. Larsen and Colette H. Winn. Writings by Pre-Revolutionary French Women. London: Routledge. pp. 409–424. ISBN 0-8153-3190-8. 
  • Dauvergne, Robert (1947). "La marquise de Lambert à l'Hôtel de Nevers, 1698–1733". Revue de synthèse. Paris: Paris: A. Michel. XXI (Fascicule no. 2, octobre–décembre). 
  • Delavigne, Ferdinand (1878). "Le Premier salon du XVIIIe siècle. Une amie de Fontenelle". Mémoires de l'Académie des sciences, etc., de Toulouse. Toulouse: Douladoure (7e série, t. 10). 
  • Fontenelle, Bernard Le Bouyer de (1825) [1767]. "Éloge de la Marquise de Lambert". Œuvres de Fontenelle. II. Paris: Salmon. pp. 400–404. 
  • Giraud, Charles (1881). "Le Salon de Mme de Lambert". La maréchale de Villars et son temps. Paris: Imprimerie nationale. pp. 180–194. 
  • Granderoute, Robert (1987). "De l'Éducation des filles aux Avis d'une mère à sa fille: Fénelon et Madame de Lambert". Revue d'histoire littéraire de la France. 87: 15–30. 
  • Gréard, Octave (1886). "Madame de Lambert". L’éducation des femmes par les femmes. Paris: Hachette. pp. 169–216. 
  • Grente, Georges (1951). "La Marquise Anne-Thérèse de Lambert". In Georges Grente. Dictionnaire des lettres françaises. 3. Paris: Fayard. pp. 31–32. 
  • Hine, Ellen McNiven (1973). Madame de Lambert, her Sources and her Circle. Studies on Voltaire and the Eighteenth Century. 102. Oxford: The Voltaire Foundation. 
  • Hine, Ellen McNiven (1995). New Reflections on Women by the Marchioness de Lambert: A New Translation and Introduction. Feminist Literary Studies. 17. New York: Peter Lang Publishing. ISBN 0-8204-2705-5. 
  • Lescure, Mathurin de (1881). Les Femmes philosophes. Paris: E. Dentu. 
  • Marchal, Roger (1991). Madame de Lambert et son milieu. Studies on Voltaire and the Eighteenth Century. 289. Oxford: The Voltaire Foundation. ISBN 0-7294-0417-X. 
  • Mason, Amelia Gere (1891). "An Antechamber of the Académie Française". The Women of the French Salons. New York: The Century Co. pp. 135–145. 
  • Sainte-Beuve, Charles Augustin (1859) [1850]. "La Duchesse du Maine". Causeries du lundi. III. Paris: Garnier frères. pp. 206–228. 
  • Sainte-Beuve, Charles Augustin (1859) [1851]. "Madame de Lambert et Madame Necker". Causeries du lundi. IV. Paris: Garnier frères. pp. 217–239. 
  • Viguerie, Jean de (1995). Histoire et dictionnaire du temps des Lumières, 1715–1789. Paris: Robert Laffont. ISBN 2-221-04810-5. 
  • Williams, Charles G. S. (1991). "Anne-Thérèse de Marguenat de Courcelles, Marquise de Lambert". In Katharina M. Wilson. An Encyclopedia of Continental Women Writers. 2. London: Taylor & Francis. pp. 692–694. ISBN 0-8240-8547-7. 

External links[edit]

"Blanchot" redirects here. For the Chablis grand cru vineyard, see Chablis wine.

Maurice Blanchot (French: [blɑ̃ʃo]; 22 September 1907 – 20 February 2003) was a French writer, philosopher, and literary theorist. His work had a strong influence on post-structuralist philosophers such as Gilles Deleuze, Michel Foucault, and Jacques Derrida.

Biography[edit]

Pre-1945[edit]

Little was known until recently about much of Blanchot's life, and he long remained one of the most mysterious figures of contemporary literature.

Blanchot was born in the village of Quain (Saône-et-Loire) on 22 September 1907.[4][5][6] Blanchot studied philosophy at the University of Strasbourg, where he became a close friend of the Lithuanian-born French Jewish phenomenologist, Emmanuel Levinas. He then embarked on a career as a political journalist in Paris. From 1932 to 1940 he was editor of the mainstream, conservative daily the "Journal des débats". Early in the 1930s he contributed to a series of radical nationalist magazines, while also serving as editor of the fiercely anti-German daily "Le rempart" in 1933 and as editor of Paul Lévy's anti-Nazi polemical weekly "Aux écoutes". In 1936 and 1937 he also contributed to the far right monthly "Combat" and to the nationalist-syndicalist daily "L'Insurgé", which eventually ceased publication – largely as a result of Blanchot's intervention – because of the anti-semitism of some of its contributors. There is no dispute that Blanchot was nevertheless the author of a series of violently polemical articles attacking the government of the day and its confidence in the politics of the League of Nations, and warned persistently against the threat to peace in Europe posed by Nazi Germany.

In December 1940, he met Georges Bataille, who had written strong anti-fascist articles in the thirties, and who would remain a close friend until his death in 1962. Blanchot worked in Paris during the Nazi occupation. In order to support his family, he continued to work as a book reviewer for the Journal des débats from 1941 to 1944, writing for instance about such figures as Sartre and Camus, Bataille and Michaux, Mallarmé and Duras for a putatively Pétainist readership. In these reviews he laid the foundations for later French critical thinking, by examining the ambiguous rhetorical nature of language, and the irreducibility of the written word to notions of truth or falsity. He refused the editorship of the collaborationist Nouvelle Revue Française, for which, as part of an elaborate ploy, he had been suggested by Jean Paulhan. He remained a bitter opponent of the fascist, anti-semitic novelist and journalist Robert Brasillach, who was the principal leader of the pro-Nazi collaborationist movement, and was active in the Resistance. In June 1944, Blanchot was almost executed by a Nazi firing squad (as recounted in his text The Instant of My Death).

Post-1945[edit]

After the war Blanchot began working only as a novelist and literary critic. In 1947, Blanchot left Paris for the secluded village of Èze in the south of France, where he spent the next decade of his life. Like Sartre and other French intellectuals of the era, Blanchot avoided the academy as a means of livelihood, instead relying on his pen. Importantly, from 1953 to 1968, he published regularly in Nouvelle Revue Française. At the same time, he began a lifestyle of relative isolation, often not seeing close friends (like Levinas) for years, while continuing to write lengthy letters to them. Part of the reason for his self-imposed isolation (and only part of it – his isolation was closely connected to his writing and is often featured among his characters) was the fact that, for most of his life, Blanchot suffered from poor health.

Blanchot's political activities after the war shifted to the left. He is widely credited with being one of the main authors of the important "Manifesto of the 121", named after the number of its signatories, who included Jean-Paul Sartre, Robert Antelme, Alain Robbe-Grillet, Marguerite Duras, René Char, Henri Lefebvre, Alain Resnais, Simone Signoret and others, which supported the rights of conscripts to refuse the draft in Algeria. The manifesto was crucial to the intellectual response to the war.

In May 1968, Blanchot once again emerged from personal obscurity, in support of the student protests. It was his sole public appearance after the war. Yet for fifty years he remained a consistent champion of modern literature and its tradition in French letters. During the later years of his life, he repeatedly wrote against the intellectual attraction to fascism, and notably against Heidegger's post-war silence over the Holocaust.

Blanchot wrote more than thirty works of fiction, literary criticism, and philosophy. Up to the 1970s, he worked continually in his writing to break the barriers between what are generally perceived as different "genres" or "tendencies", and much of his later work moves freely between narration and philosophical investigation.

In 1983, Blanchot published La Communauté inavouable (The Unavowable Community). This work inspired The Inoperative Community (1986),[7]Jean-Luc Nancy's attempt to approach community in a non-religious, non-utilitarian and un-political exegesis.

He died on 20 February 2003 in Le Mesnil-Saint-Denis, Yvelines, France.

Work[edit]

Blanchot's work is not a coherent, all-encompassing 'theory', since it is a work founded on paradox and impossibility. The thread running through all his writing is the constant engagement with the 'question of literature', a simultaneous enactment and interrogation of the profoundly strange experience of writing. For Blanchot, 'literature begins at the moment when literature becomes a question' (Literature and the Right to Death).[8]

Blanchot draws on the work of the symbolist poet Stéphane Mallarmé and the negative of the Hegelian dialectic in formulating his conception of literary language as anti-realist and distinct from everyday experience. 'I say flower,' Mallarmé writes in Poetry in Crisis, 'and outside the oblivion to which my voice relegates any shape, insofar as it is something other than the calyx, there arises musically, as the very idea and delicate, the one absent from every bouquet.'[9]

In the everyday use of language, words are the vehicles of ideas. The word 'flower' means flower that refers to flowers in the world. No doubt it is possible to read literature in this way, but literature is more than this everyday use of language. For in literature 'flower' does not just mean flower but many things, and it can only do so because the word is independent from what it signifies. This independence, which is passed over in the everyday use of language, is the negativity at the heart of language. The word means something because it negates the physical reality of the thing. Only in this way can the idea arise. The absence of the thing is made good by the presence of the idea. What the everyday use of language steps over to make use of the idea, and what literature remains fascinated by, is the absence of the physical materiality of thing, annihilated from its existence. Literary language, therefore, is a double negation, both of the thing and the idea. It is in this space that literature becomes possible where words take on a strange and mysterious reality of their own, and where also meaning and reference remain allusive and ambiguous[citation needed].

Blanchot's best-known fictional works are Thomas l'Obscur (Thomas the Obscure), an unsettling récit ("[récit] is not the narration of an event, but that event itself, the approach to that event, the place where that event is made to happen")[10] about the experience of reading and loss; Death Sentence; Aminadab and The Most High (about a bureaucrat in a totalitarian state). His central theoretical works are "Literature and the Right to Death" (in The Work of Fire and The Gaze of Orpheus), The Space of Literature, The Infinite Conversation, and The Writing of the Disaster.

Themes[edit]

Blanchot engages with Heidegger on the question of the philosopher's death, showing how literature and death are both experienced as anonymous passivity, an experience that Blanchot variously refers to as "the Neutral" (le neutre). Unlike Heidegger, Blanchot rejects the possibility of an authentic relation to death, because he rejects the possibility of death, that is to say of the individual's experience of death. He thus rejects, in total, the possibility of understanding and "properly" engaging with it; and this resonates with Levinas' take too. Blanchot reverses Heidegger's position on death as the "possibility of the absolute impossibility" of Dasein, instead viewing death as the "impossibility of every possibility".[11]

Blanchot also draws heavily from Franz Kafka, and his fictional work (like his theoretical work) is shot through with an engagement with Kafka's writing.

Blanchot's work was also strongly influenced by his friends Georges Bataille and Emmanuel Levinas. Blanchot's later work in particular is influenced by Levinasian ethics and the question of responsibility to the Other. On the other hand, Blanchot's own literary works, like the famous Thomas the Obscure, heavily influenced Levinas's and Bataille's ideas about the possibility that our vision of reality is blurred because of the use of words (thus making everything you perceive automatically as abstract as words are)[citation needed]. This search for the 'real' reality is illustrated by the works of Paul Celan and Stéphane Mallarmé.

The main intellectual biography of Blanchot is by Christophe Bident: Maurice Blanchot, partenaire invisible.

Principal works[edit]

Principally fiction or narrations (récits)[edit]

  • Thomas l'Obscur, 1941 (Thomas the Obscure)
  • Aminadab, 1942
  • L'Arrêt de mort, 1948 (Death Sentence)
  • Le Très-Haut, 1949 (The Most High)
  • "Le Dernier homme", 1957 (The Last Man)
  • Le Pas au-delà, 1973 (The Step Not Beyond)
  • La Folie du jour, 1973 (The Madness of the Day)
  • L'Instant de ma mort, 1994 (The Instant of My Death)

Principally theoretical or philosophical works[edit]

  • Faux Pas, 1943
  • La Part du feu, 1949 (The Work of Fire)
  • L'Espace littéraire, 1955 (The Space of Literature – main theoretical work)
  • Le Livre à venir, 1959 (The Book to Come)
  • L'Entretien infini, 1969 (The Infinite Conversation)
  • L'Amitié, 1971 (Friendship)
  • L'Ecriture du désastre, 1980 (The Writing of the Disaster)
  • La Communauté inavouable, 1983 (The Unavowable Community)
  • Une voix venue d'ailleurs, 2002 (A Voice from Elsewhere)
  • Lautréamont and Sade. Trans. Stuart Kendell and Michelle Kendell. Stanford, California: Stanford University Press, 2004.

Many of Blanchot's principal translators into English established reputations as prose stylists and poets in their own right; some of the more well-known include Lydia Davis, Paul Auster, and Pierre Joris.

References[edit]

  1. ^Max Pensky, The Actuality of Adorno: Critical Essays on Adorno and the Postmodern, SUNY Press, 1997, p. 162.
  2. ^Osaki, Harumi, "Killing Oneself, Killing the Father: On Deleuze's Suicide in Comparison with Blanchot's Notion of Death", Literature and Theology (2008) 22(1).
  3. ^Maurice Blanchot, The Station Hill Blanchot Reader: Fiction and Literary Essays (New York, Station Hill Press, Inc., 1999), p. 100.
  4. ^Taylor, Victor E.; Vinquist, Charles E. (2002). Encyclopedia of Postmodernism. London: Routledge. p. 36. ISBN 9781134743094. Retrieved 1 August 2014. 
  5. ^Zakir, Paul (2010). "Chronology". Maruice Blanchot: Political Writings 1953-1993. Fordham University Press. p. 36. ISBN 9780823229970. 
  6. ^Johnson, Douglas (1 March 2003). "Obituary: Maurice Blanchot". The Guardian. Retrieved 1 August 2014. 
  7. ^See Jean-Luc Nancy, La communauté désavouée at Lectures - Revues.org.
  8. ^Maurice Blanchot (1995) 'Literature and the Right to Death' in The Work of Fire. C. Mandel (trans). Stanford: Stanford University Press. p. 300.
  9. ^Stephane Mallarmé: Selected Poetry and Prose (1982) Mary Ann Cawes (ed). New York: New Directions. p. 75.
  10. ^Maurice Blanchot, "The Song of the Sirens" (1959).
  11. ^Blanchot, Maurice, and Ann Smock. The Writing of the Disaster = L'écriture Du Désastre. Lincoln: U of Nebraska, 1995. Print.

Further reading[edit]

  • Michael Holland (ed.), The Blanchot Reader (Blackwell, 1995)
  • George Quasha (ed.), The Station Hill Blanchot Reader (Station Hill, 1998)
  • Michel Foucault, Maurice Blanchot: The Thought from Outside (Zone, 1989)
  • Jacques Derrida, Demeure: Fiction and Testimony (Stanford, 2000)
  • Emmanuel Levinas, On Maurice Blanchot in Proper Names (Stanford, 1996)
  • Leslie Hill, Blanchot: Extreme Contemporary (Routledge, 1997)
  • Gerald Bruns, Maurice Blanchot: The Refusal of Philosophy (Johns Hopkins Press, 1997)
  • Christophe Bident, Maurice Blanchot, partenaire invisible (Paris: Champ Vallon, 1998) ISBN 978-2-87673-253-7
  • Hadrien Buclin, Maurice Blanchot ou l'autonomie littéraire (Lausanne: Antipodes, 2011)
  • Manola Antonioli, Maurice Blanchot Fiction et théorie, Paris, Kimé, 1999.
  • Élie Ayache, L'écriture Postérieure, Paris, Complicités, 2006.
  • Éditions Complicités, Paris "Maurice Blanchot de proche en proche", collection Compagnie de Maurice Blanchot, 2007
  • Éditions Complicités "L'épreuve du temps chez Maurice Blanchot", collection Compagnie de Maurice Blanchot, 2005
  • Éditions Complicites "L'Oeuvre du Féminin dans l'écriture de Maurice Blanchot", collection Compagnie de Maurice Blanchot, 2004
  • Françoise Collin, Maurice Blanchot et la question de l'écriture, Paris, Gallimard, 1971.
  • Arthur Cools, Langage et Subjectivité vers une approche du différend entre Maurice Blanchot et Emmanuel Levinas, Louvain, Peeters, 2007.
  • Critique n°229, 1966 (numéro spécial, textes de Jean Starobinsky, Georges Poulet, Levinas, Paul de Man, Michel Foucault, René Char...).
  • Jacques Derrida, Parages, Paris, Galilée, 1986.
  • Jacques Derrida, Demeure. Maurice Blanchot, Paris, Galilée, 1994.
  • Leslie Hill, Blanchot: Extreme Contemporary, Londres, Routledge, 1997.
  • Eric Hoppenot dir., L'Œuvre du féminin dans l'écriture de Maurice Blanchot, Paris, Complicités, 2004.
  • Eric Hoppenot dir.,coordonné par Arthur COOLS, L'épreuve du temps chez Maurice Blanchot, Paris, Complicités, 2006.
  • Eric Hoppenot & Alain Milon dir., Levinas Blanchot penser la différence, Paris, Presses Universitaires de Paris X, 2008.
  • Mario Kopić, Enigma Blanchot (Pescanik, 2013) [1]
  • Jean-Luc Lannoy, Langage, perception, mouvement. Blanchot et Merleau-Ponty, Grenoble, Jérôme Millon, 2008.
  • Roger Laporte, l'Ancien, l'effroyablement Ancien in Études, Paris, P.O.L, 1990.
  • Lignes n°11, 1990 (numéro spécial contenant tout le dossier de La revue internationale).
  • Pierre Madaule, Une tâche sérieuse ?, Paris, Gallimard, 1973, pp. 74–75
  • Meschonnic, Henri, Maurice Blanchot ou l'écriture hors langage in Poésie sans réponse (Pour la poétique V), Paris, Gallimard, 1978, pp. 78–134.
  • Ginette Michaud, Tenir au secret (Derrida, Blanchot), Paris, Galilée, 2006
  • Anne-Lise Schulte-Nordholt, Maurice Blanchot, l'écriture comme expérience du dehors, Genève, Droz, 1995.
  • Jadranka Skorin-Kapov, The Aesthetics of Desire and Surprise: Phenomenology and Speculation (Lexington Books, 2015).
  • Jadranka Skorin-Kapov, The Intertwining of Aesthetics and Ethics: Exceeding of Expectations, Ecstasy, Sublimity (Lexington Books, 2016)
  • Daniel Wilhelm, Intrigues littéraires, Paris, Lignes/Manifeste, 2005.
  • Zarader, Marlène, L'être et le neutre, à partir de Maurice Blanchot, Paris, Verdier, 2000.

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